A republic (from Latin:res publica) is a sovereign state or country which is organised with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. In modern times, the definition of a republic is commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 147 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names.
Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect.
Republic was a clothing retailer with 121 stores in the United Kingdom. In February 2013, it entered administration, and was purchased by Sports Direct. Republic was merged into Sports Direct's USC brand.
Originally founded in 1985, as Just Jeans, after 1990, the name changed to Best Jeanswear; Republic was launched in 1998. It was a private limited company (Republic (Retail) Ltd.) and, in 2005, Change Capital invested in the company to finance expansion plans. In May 2011 the company was bought by private equity firm TPG Capital.
Administration and acquisition
Republic filed for administration on 13 February 2013, with Ernst & Young appointed administrators. 150 head office staff were immediately made redundant, leaving 2,500 jobs at risk. During the administration time, a total of 8 Republic stores closed, 5 in Scotland, with a further 2 closed in Northern Ireland and one in Middlesbrough, England.
On 28 February 2013, Sports Direct bought 114 Republic stores, the brand name, all remaining stock and own-brands including SoulCal, Crafted and Fabric from the administrators. The Republic head office was also purchased.
The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.
Unlike conventional beers, which are fermented by carefully cultivated strains of brewer's yeasts, lambic is produced by spontaneous fermentation: it is exposed to the wild yeasts and bacteria that are said to be native to the Zenne valley, in which Brussels lies. It is this unusual process which gives the beer its distinctive flavour: dry, vinous, and cidery, usually with a sour aftertaste.
Lambic beer is widely consumed in Brussels and environs, and frequently featured as an ingredient in Belgian cuisine.
The name "lambic" entered English via French, but comes from the Dutch language. Lambic is probably derived from the name "Lembeek", referring to the municipality of Lembeek near Halle, close to Brussels.
Cheung Wing Fat was born in Hong Kong in 1954. He got the nickname "Weird Fire Star" after being involved in a car accident leaving him with two scars on his head. While working as a stuntman on a film in Thailand he got promoted to a supporting actor and needed a stage name. He picked "Mars" based on his nickname. He became a student of Madame Fan Fok Wah (粉菊花, aka Fen Juhua) in The Spring and Autumn Drama School. Every day, he practiced from 5am to 9pm.
Mars started acting in 1966 at the age of 12. He started out as an extra and later in supporting roles. Lackey and the Lady Tiger (1980) is only the film in which he played the leading role.
In 1971, Mars got his nickname "Mars" from a stunt co-ordinator who suggested it to him since his nickname on stage was Martian Monster, and he ended up with the name Mars after filming The Rescue.